The Internal Revenue Service is focused on closing the tax gap. One way it hopes to do so is by collecting under-withheld employment taxes. As part of the Employment Tax Research Project (ETRP) launched in 2010, the IRS is reviewing the payroll practices of 6,000 employers in four main areas:
- Worker misclassification;
- Fringe benefits;
- Executive compensation; and
- Payroll taxes.
Once the research project is complete, the IRS will identify areas in which compliance errors routinely occur and focus audits on those issues. Companies not selected as part of the research project should look at their payroll practices and make any necessary corrections before the IRS comes knocking. We have already observed the IRS paying a lot more attention to employment tax issues and pursuing penalties with a diligence we have not previously witnessed in this area. Because we are seeing an expanded audit scope and depth of diligence by the IRS, we’ve put together a list of common payroll mistakes we’ve seen companies make.
Common Mistakes That Lead to Employment Tax Liability and Penalty Exposure
We recommend that companies, at a minimum, look at these issues:
1. Classification of Employees as Independent Contractors
Workers are generally classified as either employees or independent contractors. Getting this classification right is a big deal. Depending on the classification, how compensation gets reported to the IRS is different (Form W-2 vs. Form 1099). Whether the worker is entitled to benefits (like medical insurance coverage, retirement plan benefits and grants of equity compensation) can hinge on the worker’s status as an employee. Whether a worker is subject to federal income tax and employment tax withholding is also contingent on status.
If there has been an improper classification, the Voluntary Classification Settlement Program (VCSP) allows eligible employers to voluntarily reclassify workers as employees on a prospective basis and get into compliance by paying 10 percent of the employment tax liability that may have been due on compensation paid to the workers for the most recent tax year.
2. Failure to Subject Vendor Payments to Backup Withholding
If a company issues a payment to a vendor without first obtaining a Form W-9, the payment could be subject to mandatory backup withholding at a 28 percent rate. Even when it is later determined that the vendor is not subject to backup withholding (for example, the vendor is later determined to be a corporation), if the company did not obtain a Form W-9 prior to issuing payment, there may still be an issue: on audit, the IRS has pursued the collection of a failure-to-deposit penalty on the amount that should have been withheld ---- because at the time of payment, the company did not know that the vendor payment was exempt from backup withholding.
3. Failure to Issue Form 1099s
A Form 1099 must generally be issued to vendors, including independent contractors, who provide more than $600 in services. Some entities, such as corporations, are not required to be issued a Form 1099. If a company fails to timely furnish a Form 1099, it can be subject to penalties.
4. Not Including the Fair Market Value of Gift Cards, Prizes and Awards in Employees’ Income
For federal income tax purposes, most prizes and awards are considered taxable fringe benefits subject to federal income and employment tax withholding. Gift cards are the equivalent of cash and should always be included in taxable wages regardless of amount. Certain items can be excluded from wages if they are de minimis in nature. However, cash equivalents are never de minimis.
5. Failing to Timely Deposit Withheld Taxes
Generally, a company is required to deposit taxes on a monthly or semi-weekly basis. When taxes reach certain amounts, they must be deposited the next business day. If a company doesn’t timely deposit these taxes, the company may be subject to late deposit penalties and interest. Penalty rates range from 2 to 15 percent, depending on how late the deposit is.
6. Failure to Timely Deposit Withholding Taxes on Vested Restricted Stock and Exercise of Stock Options
When an individual exercises stock options, employment taxes should be deposited within one day of the settlement date. The settlement date should not be more than three days after the date of exercise. However, when an employee is granted restricted stock, he or she generally recognizes income upon vesting. Income and employment taxes are required to be withheld on the fair market value of the shares less any amount the employee paid for such shares on that date. The income and employment taxes may be required to be deposited the next business day.
7. Incorrectly Excluding Expense Reimbursements from Reportable Wages
Whether expense reimbursements can be excluded from an employee’s wages depends on whether he or she is reimbursed pursuant to an accountable plan. An accountable plan is generally one under which expenses are reimbursed only if there is a business connection to the expenditure, there is an adequate accounting of the expenditure and any excess reimbursements are returned to the employer. If expenses are reimbursed under a policy or plan that does not meet these requirements, they must be included in taxable wages.
8. Failure to Include Nonqualified Deferred Compensation in Executives’ Incomes
If nonqualified deferred compensation plans have not been amended to comply with Internal Revenue Code Section 409A or have provisions that do not comply with 409A, the executives could have an income recognition event prior to the payment of the deferred amounts and could be subject to an excise tax. The Service has also established a correction program where taxpayers can obtain some relief with respect to certain operational failures. Only certain types of failures are eligible for correction, but taking advantage of this program can reduce the total amount of income inclusion and excise taxes.
9. Not Including the Appropriate Value of Taxable Fringe Benefits in Employees’ Income
Taxable fringe benefits can also include spousal travel, company-provided automobiles, country club dues and housing benefits. How a company values these fringe benefits for purposes of income and employment tax reporting and withholding can be a complicated issue. For example, there are three valuation methods for calculating the value of personal use of company-provided vehicles. Is your company calculating this correctly?
10. Excluding Travel and Commuting Expense Reimbursements from Employees’ Income.
Most of the time, travel and commuting expenses are not taxable income to an employee. However, if what started out as a short-term assignment is extended beyond a year, or if an employee is traveling to a permanent work site that is not in the same place as his or her permanent residence, those company-provided travel and commuting benefits may need to be included in the employee’s income.
Alvarez & Marsal Taxand Says:
While this list is not exhaustive, it provides a jumping off point for determining how well your company is doing. Companies should conduct a compliance review while they still have a chance to fix what’s wrong without having to negotiate penalties and interest with an IRS auditor at the same time.
As provided in Treasury Department Circular 230, this publication is not intended or written by Alvarez & Marsal Taxand, LLC, (or any Taxand member firm) to be used, and cannot be used, by a client or any other person or entity for the purpose of avoiding tax penalties that may be imposed on any taxpayer.
The information contained herein is of a general nature and based on authorities that are subject to change. Readers are reminded that they should not consider this publication to be a recommendation to undertake any tax position, nor consider the information contained herein to be complete. Before any item or treatment is reported or excluded from reporting on tax returns, financial statements or any other document, for any reason, readers should thoroughly evaluate their specific facts and circumstances, and obtain the advice and assistance of qualified tax advisors. The information reported in this publication may not continue to apply to a reader's situation as a result of changing laws and associated authoritative literature, and readers are reminded to consult with their tax or other professional advisors before determining if any information contained herein remains applicable to their facts and circumstances.
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